A rhythm. The interference between two tones of almost equal frequency A short pause in a play , screenplay , or teleplay , for dramatic or comedic effect. The route patrolled by a police officer or a guard. The instrumental portion of a piece of hip-hop music. Adjektiivit US slang exhausted dilapidated , beat up gay slang fabulous slang boring Verbit transitive To hit ; to knock ; to pound ; to strike.
To mix food in a rapid fashion.
Compare whip. To tread, as a path. To exercise severely; to perplex; to trouble. To be in agitation or doubt. To make a sound when struck. To sound with more or less rapid alternations of greater and less intensity, so as to produce a pulsating effect; said of instruments, tones, or vibrations, not perfectly in unison. Is Singular 'They' a Better Choice? Test your knowledge of these commonly confused words! Can you spell these 10 commonly misspelled words?
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Examples of beat in a Sentence Verb He beat the dust out of the rug with a stick. Recent Examples on the Web: Verb Most recently, reporter Volodymyr Volovodyuk, who had investigated black-market trading in the central Vinnytsia region, was beaten to death June First Known Use of beat Verb before the 12th century, in the meaning defined at transitive sense 1 Noun 1 circa , in the meaning defined at sense 1a Adjective , in the meaning defined at sense 1a Noun 2 , in the meaning defined above. Learn More about beat. Resources for beat Time Traveler! Explore the year a word first appeared.
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Dictionary Entries near beat beast of venery beast of warren beast tale beat beata beat about beat a dead horse See More Nearby Entries. Statistics for beat Look-up Popularity. Camelet et al. Ultimately, experimental investigation of the response of the dynein motor to external loading might be able to settle this issue. Our thanks to David Mitchell for the excellent micrograph used in Fig. This article is part of a Minifocus on cilia and flagella. Cell Sci.
Bloodgood J. Scott Seeley and Maxence V. Nachury J. Emmer et al. This Issue. Download PDF. NOTE: We only request your email address so that the person you are recommending the page to knows that you wanted them to see it, and that it is not junk mail. We do not capture any email address.
Have you seen our First Person interviews with the early-career first authors of our papers? The authors talk about their work in and out of the lab, the journeys that led them to where they are now and the scientists who inspired them along the way. Where will your research take you? Here she studies the cause of chromosome mis-segregation defects in Xenopus hybrids. We caught up with Maiko to discuss her research, science communication, ballet, preprints and more.
The meeting will take place May , and further information is available here. A new poster from the Robinson lab summarises what is known about the five adaptor protein complexes and discuss how this helps to explain the clinical features of different genetic disorders. Streamlining the publishing process, Review Commons enables high-quality peer review to take place before journal submission. Galko Development. McNally Development. Skip to main content. Flagellar and ciliary beating: the proven and the possible. Charles B. Lindemann , Kathleen A. Summary The working mechanism of the eukaryotic flagellar axoneme remains one of nature's most enduring puzzles.
Introduction Flagella and cilia are organelles of eukaryotic cells that produce motility by repetitive episodes of bending. CP-spoke axis The most widely held conception of axonemal coordination is that it is controlled through the CP-spoke apparatus. Dynein cross-bridge cycle Of the other mechanistic proposals to explain the beat cycle, the most noteworthy are those that can generally be grouped as being dependent on the dynein cross-bridge cycle that is, the cycle of dynein attachment to microtubules, power stroke and detachment.
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Dynein I1 and models of beat control A special role of the inner arms and dynein I1 is compatible with the geometric-clutch model and possibly with dynein-cycle-based models as well. Nucleotide regulation of dynein There are numerous molecular studies that dissect the functions of the AAA ATPases associated with diverse cellular activities domain of the dynein motor Silanovich et al. Bending-induced sliding The observation that bending isolated pieces of bull sperm flagella can re-institute a beat cycle Lindemann and Rikmenspoel, a supports the idea that a passive externally imposed bend can assist in the engagement of the dynein motors.
Structural considerations The structural arrangement of the microtubules and proteins that make up the axoneme is a marvel of natural engineering. Conclusions and perspectives At present, there are three contending views of how the axoneme might generate the flagellar beat cycle: the mechanical view, which is elaborated in the geometric-clutch hypothesis; the enzymatic view, which relies on the action of components of the CP-spoke axis; and the view that it is the behavior of the dynein motors that contributes spontaneous oscillatory behavior.
Acknowledgements Our thanks to David Mitchell for the excellent micrograph used in Fig. Footnotes This article is part of a Minifocus on cilia and flagella. Electron microscopy of the sperm tail. Results obtained with a new fixative. Afzelius , B. The fine structure of the cilia from ctenophore swimming-plates. Brokaw , C. Movement and nucleoside polyphosphatase activity of isolated flagella from Polytoma uvella. Cell Res. Bend propagation by a sliding filament model for flagella. Flagellar movement: a sliding filament model.
Science , - Computer simulation of flagellar movement.
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Demonstration of stable bend propagation and bend initiation by the sliding filament model. Simple curvature-controlled models are incompletely specified. Microtubule sliding in swimming sperm flagella: direct and indirect measurements on sea urchin and tunicate spermatozoa. Cell Biol. Computer simulation of flagellar movement: VII. Conventional but functionally different cross-bridge models for inner and outer arm dyneins can explain the effects of outer arm dynein removal.
Cell Motil. Cytoskeleton 42 , - Bending patterns of Chlamydomonas flagella: IV.